(Complete set of spells, but vol. The book of the dead or going forth by day: ideas of the ancient Egyptians concerning the hereafter as .. result EUR age n. ·. tense n (grammar). ·. day n. ·. term n. ·. hours pl. ·. hour n. ·. spell n Fly with me in your spirit to the Book of The Acts of The Apostles .. The true Hallstatt period actually began around B.C. In , mine out not as a dead allegory, but will retain a liveliness and assume a form of its own, a symbol of its age. “Types of Rubrics in the Egyptian Book of the Dead,” JAOS REFERENCES CITED. Hanks, William f. “text and textuality,” ARA . “Single Spell Book of the Dead Papyri as Amulets,” in Totenbuch- Forschungen.
Thus the gods have declared that Ani is "true of voice," as was Osiris, and they have called Ani "Osiris," because in his purity of word and deed he resembled that god.
In all the copies of the Book of the Dead the deceased is always called "Osiris," and as it was always assumed that those for whom they were written would be found innocent when weighed in the Great Balance, the words "true of voice," which were equivalent in meaning to "innocent and acquitted," were always written after their names.
It may be noted in passing that when Ani's heart was weighed against Truth, the beam of the Great Balance remained perfectly horizontal.
This suggests that the gods did not expect the heart of the deceased to "kick the beam," but were quite satisfied if it exactly counterbalanced Truth.
They demanded the fulfilment of the Law and nothing more, and were content to bestow immortality upon the man on whom Thoth's verdict was "he hath done no evil,".
His heart is righteous [and] hath come forth from the Balance. It hath no sin before any god or any goddess. Thoth hath set down his judgment in writing, and the Company of the Gods have declared on his behalf that [his] evidence is very true.
Let there be given unto him of the bread and beer which appear before Osiris. Let him be like the Followers of Horus for ever! There is no sin in my body.
I have not uttered a lie knowingly. Grant that I may be like the favoured or rewarded ones who are in thy train. When the soul in its beautified or spirit body arrived there, the ministers of Osiris took it to the homestead or place of abode which had been allotted to it by the command of Osiris, and there it began its new existence.
The large vignette to the CXth Chapter shows us exactly what manner of place the abode of the blessed was. The country was flat and the fields were intersected by canals page 31 of running water in which there were "no fish and no worms" i.
In one part of it were several small islands, and on one of them Osiris was supposed to dwell with his saints. It was called the "Island of Truth," and the ferry-man of Osiris would not convey to it any soul that had not been declared "true of word" by Thoth, Osiris and the Great Gods at the "Great Reckoning.
He was introduced into the Sekhet Heteput a section of the Sekhet Aaru, i. One corner of this region was specially set apart for the dwelling place of the aakhu , i.
Near this spot were moored two boats that were always ready for the use of the denizens of that region; they appear to have been "spirit boats," i.
How the beautified passed their time in the Kingdom of Osiris may be seen from the pictures cut on the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I, now preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Here we see them occupied in producing the celestial food on which they and the god lived. Some are tending the wheat plants as they grow, and others are reaping the ripe grain.
The beautified are described as "Those who have offered up incense to the gods, and whose kau i. Their truth shall be reckoned to them in the presence of the Great God who destroyeth sin.
Take ye your rest because of what ye have done, becoming even as those who are in my following, and who direct the House of Him whose Soul is holy.
Ye shall live there even as they live, and ye shall have dominion over the cool waters of your land. I command that ye have your being to the limit [of that land] with Truth and without sin.
As the Wheat-god he would satisfy those who wished for a purely material, agricultural heaven, where hunger would be unknown and where the blessed would be able to satisfy every physical desire and want daily; and as the God of Truth, of whom the spiritually minded hoped to become the counterpart, he would be their hope, and consolation, and the image of the Eternal God.
This Hymn is supposed to be sung by the deceased, who says: Thou risest, thou risest; thou shinest, thou shinest at the dawn. The Company of the Gods praise thee at sunrise and at sunset.
Thou sailest over the heights of heaven and thy heart is glad. Thy Morning Boat meeteth thy Evening Boat with fair winds. Thy father is the Sky-god and thy mother is the Sky-goddess, and thou art Horus of the Eastern and Western skies.
O thou Only One, O thou Perfect One, O thou who art eternal, who art never weak, whom no mighty one can abase; none hath dominion over the things which appertain to thee.
Homage to thee in thy characters of Horus, Tem, and Khepera, thou Great Hawk, who makest man to rejoice by thy beautiful face.
When thou risest men and women live. Thou renewest thy youth, and dost page 34 set thyself in the place where thou wast yesterday.
O Divine Youth, who art self-created, I cannot comprehend thee. Thou art the lord of heaven and earth, and didst create beings celestial and beings terrestrial.
Thou art the God One, who camest into being in the beginning of time. Thou didst create the earth, and man, thou didst make the sky and the celestial river Hep; thou didst make the waters and didst give life unto all that therein is.
Thou hast knit together the mountains, thou hast made mankind and the beasts of the field to come into being, and hast made the heavens and the earth.
The fiend Nak is overthrown, his arms are cut off. O thou Divine Youth, thou heir of everlastingness, self-begotten and self-born, One, Might, of myriad forms and aspects, Prince of An i.
As thou risest thou growest greater: Thou art unknowable, and no tongue can describe thy similitude; thou existest alone. Millions of years have passed over the world, I cannot tell the number of those through which thou hast passed.
Thou journeyest through spaces [requiring] millions of years [to pass over] in one little moment of time, and then thou settest and dost make an end of the hours.
They shout praises of him in his form of Tem i. Thou didst rise and put on strength, and thou settest, a living being, and thy glories are in Amentt.
The gods of Amentt rejoice in thy beauties or beneficence. The hidden ones worship thee, the aged ones bring thee offerings and protect thee.
Their eyes follow thee, they press forward to see thee, and their hearts rejoice at the sight of thy face. Thou hearkenest to the petitions of those who are in their tombs, thou dispellest their helplessness and drivest away evil from them.
Thou givest breath to their nostrils. Thou art greatly feared, thy form is majestic, and very greatly art thou beloved by those who dwell in the Other World.
Thou art the Governor of gods and of men and hast received the sceptre, the whip, and the rank of thy Divine Fathers.
Let thy heart in Amentt be content, for thy son Horus is seated upon thy throne. Thou makest fertile the Two Lands i.
Thy power is widespread, and great is the terror of thy name 'Osiris. Homage to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, Governor of governors, who from the womb of the Sky-goddess hast ruled the World and the Under World.
Thy limbs are as silver-gold, thy hand is blue like lapis-lazuli, and the space on either side of thee is of the colour of turquoise or emerald.
Thou god An of millions of years, thy body is all-pervading, O dweller in the Land of Holiness, thy face is beautiful The gods come before thee bowing low.
They hold thee in fear. Life is with thee. I have come to the City of God, the region that is eternally old, with my soul ba , double ka and spirit-soul aakhu , to be a dweller in this land.
Its God is the Lord of Truth I have come unto thee, my hands hold Truth, and there is no falsehood in my heart Thou hast set Truth before thee: I know on what thou livest.
I have committed no sin in this land, and I have defrauded no man of his possessions. Chapter I was recited by the priest who accompanied the mummy to the tomb and performed the burial ceremonies there.
In it the priest kher heb assumed the character of Thoth and promised the deceased to do for him all that he had done for Osiris in days of old.
Chapters II—IV are short spells written to give the deceased power to revisit the earth, to join the gods, and to travel about the sky.
The text of Chapter VI was cut on figures made of stone, wood, etc. The shabti figure, , took the place of the human funerary sacrifice which was common all over Egypt before the general adoption of the cult of Osiris under the XIIth dynasty.
About ushabtiu figures were found in the tomb of Seti I, and many of them are in the British Museum.
Chapter XIV is a prayer in which Osiris is entreated to put away any feeling of dissatisfaction that he may have for the deceased, who says, "Wash away my sins, Lord of Truth; destroy my transgressions, wickedness and iniquity, O God of Truth.
May this god be at peace with me. Destroy the things that are obstacles between us. Give me peace, and remove all dissatisfaction from thy heart in respect of me.
The opening words are, "I am Tem in rising. I am the Only One. I came into being in Nu the Sky. He existed on the height of the Dweller in Khemenu i.
These addresses formed a very powerful spell which was used by Horus, and when he recited it four times all his enemies were overthrown and cut to pieces.
Thoth recited spells over the gods whilst Ptah untied the bandages and Shu forced open their mouths with an iron?
Five chapters, XXVI—XXX, contain prayers and spells whereby the deceased page 38 obtained power over his heart and gained absolute possession of it.
This prayer was still in use in the early years of the Christian Era. In Chapter XLII every member of the deceased is put under the protection of, or identified with, a god or goddess, e.
A spell to prevent the decapitation of the deceased, who assumes in it the character of Osiris the Lord of Eternity.
An ancient and mighty spell, the recital of which prevented the deceased from dying a second time. Chapter L enabled the deceased to avoid the block of execution of the god Shesmu.
Chapters LI—LIII provided the deceased with pure food and clean water from the table of the gods; he lived upon what they lived upon, and so became one with them.
Chapters LIV—LXII gave the deceased power to obtain cool water from the Celestial Nile and the springs of waters of heaven, and being identified with Shu, the god of light and air, he was enabled to pass over all the earth at will.
His life was that of the Egg of the "Great Cackler," and the goddess Sesheta built a house for him in the Celestial Anu, or Heliopolis.
The soul visiting the mummified body in the tomb. The bird-goddess at the head is Isis, and that at the feet is Nephthys. The water in some of its pools was cool and refreshing to those who were speakers of the page 39 truth, but it turned into boiling water and scalded the wicked when they tried to drink of it.
Chapter LXIV is an epitome of the whole Book of the Dead, and it formed a "great and divine protection" for the deceased. The text is of a mystical character and suggests that the deceased could, through its recital, either absorb the gods into his being, or become himself absorbed by them.
Atum, of course, was the god of sunset, primeval time and original kingship, but what he holds in his hands symbolizes sunrise, rebirth, and renewed kingship.
This Atum serpent stands in front of a fantastic composite deity, surrounded by fire hieroglyphs. He is plainly a form of Kamutef — ithyphallic, with upraised arm - who nevertheless manifests many other gods, indicated by their stack of heads: Alternate vignette of Spell The composite deity he faces is Kamutef transforming into many gods.
The spells provide clues that this place was Napata. Since in all these aspects Jebel Barkal southern Ipet-Sut appears to have had the same god and ritual significance as Luxor Temple Ipet-resyt: It is this form of the sun which travels the Underworld by night and which united with Osiris in order to be resurrected at dawn as a newborn sun.
Copyright by Timothy Kendall - All articles by T. Kendall unless otherwise noted. Visit Site Maps Send Comments.
The simplest vignette of Spell pictured a two-legged snake in the form of a sideways S. Statue of Kamutef as a uraeus, dedicated by Taharqo to the god of Luxor Temple, who seems to have been an avatar of the Amun of Jebel Barkal.
The uraeus shape not only evokes the pinnacle, but also the serpent illustrated in Spells 87 and of the Book of the Dead fig.
Courtesy of the Luxor Museum. My hair is Nu ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors are Isis the goddess; my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is Neith , Lady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are the Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my calves are Nut ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my flesh.
I have guarded this egg of the Great Cackler. If it grows, I grow; if it lives, I life; if it breathes air, I breathe air. May I have power in my heart, may I have power in my arms, may I have power in my legs, may I have power in my mouth, may I have power in all my members may I have power over invocation-offerings, may I have power over water Come for my soul, O you wardens of the sky!
If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you The sacred barque will be joyful and the great god will proceed in peace when you allow this soul of mine to ascend vindicated to the gods May it see my corpse, may it rest on my mummy, which will never be destroyed or perish.
To be spoken over a falcon standing with the White Crown on his head; Atum , Shu and Tefnut , Geb and Nut , Osiris and Isis , Seth and Nepthys being drawn in ochre on a new bowl placed in the sacred barque, together with an image of this spirit ba whom you wish to be made worthy, it being anointed with oil.
Offer to them incense on the fire and roasted ducks, and worship Ra. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra every day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that the enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed.
A matter a million times true. O you gates, you who keep the gates because of Osiris, O you who guard them and who report the affairs of the Two Lands to Osiris every day; I know you and I know your names.
If uttered correctly, this spell ensures "he will not be driven off or turned away at the portals of the Netherworld".
Journey through the afterlife. British Museum Press, London, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.